Physics Update 3: The Quadcopter People

This week we explored the parts that we need to achieve initial flight.  We have ordered some blades, a 12 volt battery, motors, ESC’s, control board, and a wireless device with a controller that will allow us to control the quadcopter at a distance.  We also sketched a design in which the entire layout of the copter would be explained once all the parts we ordered arrived.  At this point in time, we are waiting for the order to arrive so we can continue with the construction of the Quadcopter.  It may not seem like much, but these activities have kept us busy for the entirety of the week.

Signing off: Jacob, Mandi, Steven, Trevor, Danielle

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“Endless Forms Most Beautiful”

Well. it seems like we have covered everything about evolution that is possible.  But, have we?  We discussed Darwin and how he got his ideas and then microevolution.  However, there seems to be just one thing we haven’t really dug into and that is Darwin himself and all his theories.  I know, I know.  You’re probably thinking I’m going to tell you everything you’ve already heard before.  You must already know everything there is to know about Darwin anyway.  He was that one guy way back when who did that one thing that affected all these other things, right?  Wrong! My mission today is to tell you brand new things I learned about Darwin and his theories and to teach you something about evolution.

To bring you this blog post today, I sta through a 1 HOUR long lecture all about Darwin, and while I did learn a lot of interesting things, Iwould rather never do it again in the highschool computer lab (Many Mandi’s went insane in the creating of this blog post).  Fans are just so loud.  But, forgetting about me and going into the subject at hand, I watched a video about evolution, Darwin and his theories.  It was given by a man named Sean B. Carroll.  He recently wrote a book entitled “Endless Form Most Beautiful,” a quote from Darwin (P.S. I didn’t plagerize my title, source cited!).  So, here we go (You have to say it like Peter Pan)!

Evolution is an idea that has become central to modern biology.  Without the theory of evolution, we wouldn’t be where we are today in biology.  We have our genetic make up today from things that have happened to humans in the past.  Our medical lives are in constant evolution because we are evolving as well as other things.  Evolution is a huge idea.  Infact, there may be no bigger idea out there.  But, all science has deep roots.  Darwin’s ideas have been around, used and expanded upon for 150 years!  Darwin gave many contributions to the scientific world.  Sadly, Darwin’s key ideas tend to be greatly misunderstood.  Let’s start at the beginning.

Darwin was headed for the medical field after school.  He wanted to be a physician.  However, he soon learned that surgery, blood and things in that category difinitely weren’t for him.  He enjoyed natural history and love reading.  After giving up on being a physician he started reading about scientist going and exploring the tropics.  That always intregged him.  But, his father, feeling like Darwin wasn’t doing anything with his life at the moment, decided Darwin was going to be a Clergy.  So, he put him in religious school.  While Darwin was studying to be a Clergy, he was offered to go on a voyage with the British Navy around the world.  However, Darwin’s father refused to let him go, giving him several reasons for doing so.  These were: it was a wild voyage, Darwin was not the first choice, he wouldn’t settle down after this voyage, it would be extremely uncomfortable and it would be completely pointless.  But, Darwin decided he wouldn’t take no for an answer.  So, he sat down and came up with an arguement for each of his father’s points and pursuaded him to let him go on this voyage.

This voyage was only supposed to be a two year trip around the world, but it ended up being five.  Darwin was away from his family and everyone he knew for five years to go on this voyage.  He had packed a lot of supplies to collect specimens and make observations and books to learn from as they traveled.  Darwin had brought two books with him.  The first was Lyell’s Principles of Geology and the second was the Holy Bible.  The interesting thing is that Darwin brought a geology book.  He was interested in geology and had a good understanding of it.  This is what set him apart from the other naturalists.  This is what helped him come up with his theories.  It was critical knowledge for his success.  In this book a new suggestion had come up and that was that landforms changes and became different over time.  The other idea in this book is that the earth was much older than people orginally thought.  Then you have the coral reefs.  This is part of Darwin’s first theories.  One question that was asked was how do coral reef form develop.  At the time it was a popular belief that coral reefs were build on the edges of volcanic craters.  However, Darwin questioned that.  He just didn’t feel like that was likely and that was the actual answer.  He figured that if landforms changed than coral reefs could change too.  He figured coral reefs were all the same things, they were all just in different stages.  When an island was first formed, a finging reef was formed around it.  Then, when the island slowly sunk, it created a lagoon and then the reef acted as a barrier, getting the name a barrier reef (Australia).  This was Darwin’s first great theory.  When this theory was proven to be correct, it showed that Darwin had an ability to theorize.  That when he thought hard and applied his knowledge, he could come up with amazing theories.

While Darwin was traveling on this voyage, he saw a lot of things.  Many of those things were animals, both dead and alive.  But, most importantly, he saw a lot of strange things he had never seen before.  For example, he saw flightless birds.  This amazed him because he had never seen a bird whose wings wouldn’t allow it to fly.  He also saw interesting fossils.  He found a huge, and I mean HUGE fossil of a ground sloth.  And later, he realized that fossil wasn’t only much bigger than other sloths, it was much older.  But, the place where he found the most interesting things would have to be the Galapagos Islands.  He saw swinging lizards, giant tortoises, and seals that weren’t afraid of people.  And, last but not least, Darwin’s legendary finches.  A thought came to him; if land could change then can species’ change too?  He did a lot of collecting of specimens and finally got to return home.  When he arrived home, Darwin started connecting the dots but he still had so many questions.  He studied everything he had very carefully and wanted to know what it all meant.  He knew theorizing about these things was a great risk because everything he was theorizing went against the church and it’s beliefs at the time.  So, he would theorize is special secret notebooks.  And soon enough he was writing theories of how species’ formed.  But, it would be a long time before people would read his theories.

At the time, Darwin had a huge amount of praise and attention for all of the fossils and specimens he had brought back to Europe.  He knew that if he set forth his theories for how species came about, he was going to loose everything.  Also, he married Emma and didn’t want to affect here religious devotion.  Darwin conducted many experiments about this.  He became a pigeon breeder and found from other breeders that you could make a fantastic variety of pigeons just by how you decided which two pigeons would breed together.  He also heard that all the types of pigeons they had at the moment were all descendant from a white rock pigeon.  More wheels were turning in his head to why other animals couldn’t do that too, or why that couldn’t happen on a larger scale.  Then, there were the finches that Darwin collected from the Galapagos.  The beak shape changed depending on the island.  Darwin figured the bird had changed because of the food sources and it evolved to survive.  This is about the time that Darwin came up with the idea that species are connected in a family tree.  That one species gives way to another.

Darwin was reading a book by Malthus (we learned a little about him earlier) and he had put something in his writings about the competition for survival.  He suggested that the favorable traits in a species would be saved and that the not so favorable would be gotten rid of.  This blossomed Darwin’s idea of natural selection.

Darwin kept working on his evidence until two events happened that convinced him to go public with his ideas.  Darwin had 10 children and he was always at home to work and be with them.  He was very close to his first daughter Annie.  She got very sick and died.  In Darwin’s mind he was thinking what could be worse than losing your daughter.  That maybe he should tell everyone his theories.  But he still didn’t, until he received a package from another scientist named Wallace.  He had developed a theory of species formation and wanted Darwin to look at it and see what he thought about it.  In that package, Darwin saw his whole life’s work and he was worried that someone was going to beat him to it.  He didn’t want to wait any longer.  That is when Darwin and Wallace went together to present the species evolve and natural selection is the force behind that.  Then, after that Darwin completed his work of Origin of Species.  In this work, Darwin put all of his evidence for evolution but he also showed the arguments against evolution.  He wrote it very creatively and beautifully because he knew for people to read it and listen to it, he and to make it interesting and it had to appeal to the people.

At this point, in the video, people were allowed to ask questions.  The first was if Wallace had published anything else after he presented with Darwin.  Wallace did publish many more things, but, unlike Darwin, he was never able to really capture his audience of inspire others.  That was why Darwin’s works were so popular.  People enjoyed them, and for some, it inspired them and gave them ideas that they then wrote down.  The other was what happened with Darwin’s family when he made his theories public?  When Darwin publicized this, he was very careful about it.  Emma knew and had read his theories before he make the announcement.  Their relationship was great.  What Darwin always worried would happen never did and his relationship with his family stayed the same.

Back into the lecture, Carroll continued to talk about the Origin of Species.  In this work Darwin really stressed descent  from other species along with modification.  He said that everything has descended within it’s own class from common parents and has been modified in the course of descent.  This idea that all life is connected has been said to be Darwin’s grandest theory.  The way Darwin represented this idea was with the “Tree of Life.”  The higher branches represented the new things and the bottom laid the way for the new species.  He stressed that fossils were evidence for evolution.  He found oyster beds 13,000 feet above sea level, proving that land changes and so does environment, so animals would have to change to cope with that.  Fossils were a huge insight into that.

There are four sites in North America with amazing fossils.  The first, and oldest is 505 million years old and is called Burgess Shale.  They found Aysheaia and Trilobite fossils there, which were the earliest complex animals.  The second is Dinosaur National Monument which is full of Jurassic deposits.  There were huge stones found with amazing fossils in them.  They were about 157 million years old.  There was one rock with over 2,000 bones in it.  They must have been washed down a river and then cemented into stone.  The third is Fossil Butte.  It is a very arid area and the rocks have horizons on them that are rich in fossil deposits.  The rock are full of fossil fish from enormous lakes that used to cover the area.  In that time, there would be massive die-offs in the lakes because of adjustments and then the fish would be covered in silt and fossilized.  They have found 50 million year old fish kills.  They also found a fossil of a 50 million year old palm tree, suggesting that this area was once tropical.  The environment, land and animals have all changed.  The last is the most recent, called La Brea Tar Pits.  The have something called bone beds that are between 12,000 to 14,000 years old.  They were really just piles of bones in pits, because they used to be tar pits and animals would get stuck in them.  When predators came to get some food, then they would get stuck in the tar too, killing many animals.  The good thing about the tar is that is was amazing preserver of the animals.  They have found amazing mammoths and saber-tooth tigers inside these pits.  But what do all of these places tell us?

  1. They tell us that the animals and plants have changed.
  2. They tell us that they had a huge time frame in which the change happened.
  3. Extinction is a fate for 99% of the species we have seen.
  4. The environments have changed immensely.

This shows that there are living things on a constantly changing surface.  With all of the changing environments, the living things have to change to survive.  So, we have proved now that evolution happens, but now the question is how?  This is where natural selection comes in. Natural Selection is rejecting less favorable traits and preserving the more favorable traits.  The equation for natural selection is variation, time and selective advantage.

Here is an example of an adaptation of a certain species called Rock Pocket Mice.  They have 2 colors; sandy and dark.  These two types of mice live in a sandy colored area, however, they have lava flows, which harden a blackish color.  When the mice don’t blend in with their surroundings, then the have a smaller chance of survival.  So, the mice color matching their surroundings.  At first, all the mice were the sandy color.  But, now, they have the possibility to change because of natural selection.  All sandy mice have two copies of the light allele.  The dark mice have one or two copies of the dark allele.  This is the genetic basis for color difference.  Now we have to find out how often a coat mutation arises.  This depends on three things.

  1. Mutation rate
  2. Reproduction rate
  3. Population size

The mutation rate is 2 per billion, the possible mutation sites in the gene is 10 and the copies of gene in each mouse is 2.  We have to multiply all of these numbers together and it gives you a 1 in 25 million shot at having an offspring with the mutation.  Is this a long shot?  Let’s continue and see.  The reproduction rate is each female is having at least 5 babies  and the population size is 5,000 females.  The total offspring for the year is 25,000.  These means that every thousand years, a spontaneous black mouse will be born.  Considering how old the species is, this mutation could have happen a total of 1,700 times.  So, it really isn’t a long shot.

To find our how long it would take for every mouse to be black you need the population size and s.

  • s is the selection coefficient (the advantage)
  • s is a relative measure of fitness
  • s is product of reproduction and survival

Right now, the black mice have a .01 or 1% advantage.  It would take 1,000 generations for 95% of the population to be black mice.  If the black mice had a 10% advantage, then it would only take 100 generations for 95% of the mice to be black.  Unlike most people believe, natural selection is a very rapid process and it spreads quickly.

A change in the environment an animal lives in is completely out of their control.  But when the environment changes, the process of natural selection will happen.  The environment changing is random, but natural selection isn’t.

The Transformation Lab

I ended up being gone for this entire lab, but I was here for the explanation of how it worked.  Luckily, I know that process and I was going to write this blog about what I learned from the review in class, so it will be pretty short.  During the experiment there were three different types of dishes that the bacteria were growing in.  The first was called LB and it had normal growth with nothing extra added into it.  The second had LB, but it also had ampicillian, which is an antibiotic.  The last dish had LB, ampicillian and arabinose, which is sugar.  The groups were not sure which dish they received and they all went through the lab the same.  One tube got a bacteria colony and it also received a plasmid, which was basically a piece of new DNA.  This was the positive tube.   The other tube received no plasmid.  This is the negative tube.  Now, here is a picture of the plasmid so you can have better understanding of the conclusion and what happened with these bacteria.

 

 

 

This is a picture of the plasmid we put into one of the tubes.  This is really important to understand.

So, when the experiment was over, the dishes all did different things.  I will lay each possibility out for you.

If the group had an LB dish with a plasmid, the bacteria would have grown but basically stayed the same. The same thing goes for the LB dish without a plasmid.  There would have been no change.

If you had a LB and ampicillian dish with a plasmid, then your bacteria would have lived, but not necessarily grown.  If your dish had no plasmid, than all your bacteria would have died because the ampicillian killed all of the bacteria.

The last dish was a LB, ampicillian and arabinose dish.  If you had one of these dishes with a plasmid then couple of things will have happened.  First, your bacteria lived and probably grew because the sugar in there is a food for the bacteria.  Also, the bacteria has to recognize that that type of food is there, and doing this causes certain enzymes to be released for the food to be digested and when this happens the promoter on the plasmid is turned on.  This causes the “Green Gene” to also turn on, so these bacteria will glow under black light.  If your dish didn’t have the plasmid, then your bacteria died because, again, the ampicillian killed them.

I told you it was going to be a short post!  I was pretty bummed I missed out on this lab, because it sounded pretty awesome.  But, I am happy I got to see the end result.

 

Did Darwin Do It All?

Evolution.  It is a very controversial topic.  Some people believe in it, some don’t and some are just in the middle.  But, luckily, toady I’m not talking about opinions.  Darwin.  That is my subject today.  Darwin usually gets all the credit for the theory of evolution and natural selection.  However, this project we did was about seeing the other people who contributed to Darwin’s ideas and allowed him to come up with his theories.  We will also look at the “Evolution Islands” or Galapagos Islands to see the information that Darwin found there, helping him with his theories as well.  Are you ready to go on an adventure?

The awareness of evolution appeared over centuries through observations from many different scientists.  In the mid-1800’s Darwin and Wallace stated the theories of evolution by natural selection.  These were influenced by their own travels and observations, but ALSO by the writings of scientist before them.

The first we learned about that helped Darwin with his own theories was Eramus Darwin.  That name sounds a little familiar right.  Well, that because this is Charles Darwin’s (the one we always hear so much about) grandfather.  I guess evolution runs in the family!  Eramus Darwin was a physician, poet, philosopher, botanist and a naturalist.  He formulated the first formal theories on evolution.  Charles Darwin didn’t really “come up with” the idea of natural selection, he ended up elaborating on ideas from his grandfather and other brilliant scientists.  Eramus Darwin believed in one single common ancestor for everyone; “One Living Filament” for everyone.  Some of Eramus’ ideas were very similar to Lamarck (you’ll hear about him next).  Eramus had an idea that competition and sexual selection could cause change in a species.  He used observations of domestic animals, the behavior of wild life, and his integrated knowledge of many different fields (paleontology, bio-geography, systematics, embryology and comparative anatomy) to come up with his integrative approach.

The next person to learn about is Jean Baptiste Lamarck.  When we was alive, his theories were largely ignored and attacked.  He was the founder of the discredited theory of heredity, “Inheritance of Acquired Traits.”  He began to study medicine and botany after being in the war.  He very quickly became and expert.  he wrote a book on the plants of France and was an assistant botanist at the Royal Botanical Garden, which was also a center for medical education and biology research.  In 1793, when the garden was turned into a museum that would be run by 12 professors, he was picked to be the professor of the natural history of insects and worms (sadly, a subject he knew absolutely nothing about).  But, he went very far in that subject for being brand new to it.  He coined the word “invertebrates” and organized huge collections.  He moved many species into other groups by reclassifying them.  In 1801 he published his first evolution theories.  His theories tended to be used in derogatory ways to refer to the theory that acquired traits can be inherited.  But, his theories really meant that organisms aren’t passively altered by the environment.  There would be a change in the environment, which would mean a change in needs of the organism which, in the end, would lead to a change in their behavior.  This leads to more or less use of a structure or organ on the organism, allowing it to disappear or get smaller if they use it less, and for it to get stronger if it is used more.  This is known as Lamarck’s first law.  His second law was that those changes an organism would make were heritable.  The result would be a continuous, gradual change of all organisms.  Lamarck’s end result was the same as Eramus Darwin’s, but the process was different.  One things Lamarck did  mention was the possibility of natural selection, but didn’t seem to be of too much importance to him.  Lamarck felt that evolution was a process of increasing complexity and perfection and that it was not done by chance.

The third person we are going to talk about is Georges Cuvier.  Certain people consider him to be one of the finest minds in history.  He founded vertebrate paleontology.  He also created the comparative method.  He was the first to really firmly establish the fact of extinction of past lifeforms.  He was appointed a professor of animal anatomy and saw organisms as integrated wholes.  Cuvier believed that no part could be modified without impairing functional integration.  He did not believe in organic evolution.  Any change in an organisms anatomy would render it unable to survive.  He also believed it was possible to reconstruct organisms from fragmentary remains, and we know that that is possible.  Cuvier classified animal into his own four branches: Vertebrata, Articulata, Mollusca and Radiata.  Cuvier’s longest lasting contribution to biology was establishing extinction as a fact, something I mentioned earlier.  Some scientists believed that many fossils represented lifeforms that no longer existed.  However, others believe God wouldn’t have allowed those animals to be wiped out.  One way he proved extinction did happen was by proving elephants were not descendants of mammoths, and there for mammoths had to have been extinct because there are no more left alive.  It was studies like these that launched vertebrate paleontology.  One other interesting thing Cuvier believed was that Earth’s conditions hadn’t changed over the years.  That every once in a while, periodic revolutions came upon the Earth, but it recovered and returned to it’s natural state.

The last person we have to talk about is Thomas Malthus.  He observed that in nature plants and animals always produced far more offspring than could ever survive.  He believe every living things was able of over producing if left unchecked.  He believe that poverty and famine were natural outcomes of population growth.  Thomas believed such natural causes were God’s way of preventing laziness.  Having more people than survive also created a competitive environment to live in.  This is where “survival of the fittest” comes in.  You have to be able to survive longer than others so you can continue to pass on your “amazing genes” to your children.  Thomas Malthus even, at one point, suggested that lower class families have a limit so they don’t have children that they can’t care for.

Now that we have reviewed some of the people Darwin may have gotten some of his ideas from, lets look at Darwin’s observations and travels that contributed to his theories.  One place that really gave Darwin a lot of observations and information were the “Evolution Islands” or, as we call them today, the Galapagos Islands.  Today, since they are such an amazing documentary of evolution and different world, they have put population limits on them.  Very few people can live on them, and they have to be willing to be very kind to the land and try to affect as least as possible.  We had a couple of questions to answer about Darwin’s discoveries at the Galapagos.  Here they are!

1. What interesting evidence of geological change did Darwin observe while visiting the Galapagos?

He had just recently been in Chile when there was good sized earthquake and there were rocks everywhere.  He found some rocks that where recently in water, when they were a good 6 feet above sea level.  This lead him to believe that quakes accounted for the the raised beaches.  They were ancient shorelines that dried out when the land raised.  This showed him that certain animals would have had to adapt to that.

2. What did Darwin learn about the Galapagos finches when he returned to England?  What vital information had he neglected to record when he collected them?

Darwin learned that the finches beak would evolve to hand the food sources it was around.  Just by looking at the beak, it will tell you what kind of food the bird ate.  As environmental conditions change, so does the beak of the finches.  Darwin forgot to record where he got each finch when he shot them, so he did not know where each bird came from.

3. Describe the distribution pattern of Galapagos mockingbirds.  What question did this raise in Darwin’s mind?

There were four different species of mockingbirds in the Galapagos Islands.  Three islands each had one of their own, specific species and then there was one species spread across the rest of the islands.  Darwin thought that the islands were very similar and so, he was curious as to why there would be four species of mockingbirds, when one species seem like it would suffice.

Darwin did end up doing many amazing things during his life.  He observed very cool things and learned a lot about species having the possibility of evolving.  Without him and those four scientist that came before him, the foundation we learn biology on now would most likely be very different.  These men were very brilliant men for their time.  It is amazing to me that people can really think that hard about something and then come up with reasons why it may be like that.  And, when their reasons were incorrect, they didn’t get upset quit, they always revised their theories so that would make more sense and fit into all the new things they had learned.  These men were very smart and very amazing.

How Police Do It: DNA Fingerprinting Web-quest

Introduction

Do you ever wonder how the police can find out how someone was murdered and who did it?  A long time ago, the process was a lot more complicated than it is now.  Now, we use DNA to figure out who did it.  You are probably thinking that DNA Fingerprinting is just using fingerprints to see who was there.  But DNA Fingerprinting is different.  Anything from tissue to blood to a strand of hair can be used as a DNA Fingerprint.  That is what we are going to study in this web-quest.

Part 1

For this part, we looked at an actual case where a man was accused of killing his wife and then was proven innocent years later through DNA.  45 years later, the man’s son is going up against Ohio State for wrongfully imprisoning his father.  It was one of the longest cases in history.

1.  In your opinion, what role (if any) did newspaper stories and editorials have in the outcome of the original trial of Dr. Sam Sheppard?

I think the stories and editorials played a huge role in the outcome of the trial.  It was said throughout the chronology that all the jurors saw everything in the press, and there were even some disruptions in court that probably biased the jurors toward one side.  Also, with all the bad press going around, they probably felt very pressured to agree with the one side receiving all the reinforcement.

2. What is the function of the restriction enzymes in DNA fingerprinting?

The restriction enzymes act like scissors when mixed with the DNA.  They cut molecules at different locations depending on the code within the DNA molecule.  For example, 1 enzyme severs the DNA when it sees the code GAATTC.  Every person has varying lengths for their DNA, so you can tell whose DNA it is.

3. What is the function of  the agarose gel electrophoresis step?

The function of this step is to separate the DNA based on length.  How it is done is, first you put in the agarose gel to the tray.  Then, you put the DNA into a hole or depression in the gel.  When you turn the tray on, the DNA moves toward the positive side, and the smaller pieces move faster.  In the end you have a banded pattern showing the different lengths.  After you go through a few more steps (explained in the next questions) you end up with a banded pattern you got from X-ray film. It is your DNA Fingerprint, and everyone has a different one.

4. Why is a nylon membrane used to blot the DNA?

We used a nylon membrane to blot the DNA because the gel is really hard to handle.  In the demonstration they compare it to handling a thin layer of Jell-O.

5. What does a dark spot on the X-ray film indicate?

It shows where the probes attached to the DNA and gives you your DNA Fingerprint.

Part 2

This part is about a case where another man was put away wrongly and then proven innocent through DNA evidence.  He was accused of rapping a young women.  We read two interviews by people involved with both DNA and they also were lawyers involved with the case.

6. What evidence was initially used to convict Cotton?

The evidence originally used to convict Cotton (the man later proved innocent) was an eyewitness.  You may think that the victim would know who her attacker was, but when this case was looked on, it was proven that your memory can make mistakes.  In all of the line ups the police had this woman look at, her real attacker wasn’t in them, and she picked the one who looked most like him.

7. What did the DNA evidence show?

The DNA evidence eventually proved that Cotton was innocent.  But another thing it proved that most people don’t think of is it showed that eyewitnesses aren’t always reliable.  It proved that this woman was mistaken.

8. How could DNA fingerprinting be used to prevent a false conviction if a case like this was being tried today?

DNA fingerprinting would help enormously.  There wouldn’t have been any doubt about the woman’s attacker if they had DNA evidence of who was there. Plus, having DNA evidence means that you don’t need an eyewitness because you already have solid proof.  Then you have nothing to contend with.

9. What percentage of convicts are unjustly convicted of sexual assault cases, according to Neufeld and Scheck?

They said that approximately 25% percent are wrongly convicted, and they know that because of DNA testing and what that is showing.

10. The O.J. Simpson trial was one of the most visible trials that attempted to use DNA evidence.  In the end, the DNA evidence was not satisfying to the jury, who acquitted Simpson.  What do Neufeld and Scheck believe about the impact of the O.J. Simpson trial on the use of DNA evidence?

Neufeld felt like the trial highlighted the huge potential of the technology.  But, this is not a law of science it is applied science which allows and opportunity for mistake.  He said that they needed to be very careful on the controls we exert and use this technology wisely.  Scheck said many of the same things.  He said that we need to make sure mistakes aren’t made and it is important that it is done correctly.

Conclusion

Well, that was a lot of information about DNA fingerprinting.  As you can see, it is used for many cases.  In the cases we reviewed, it proved wrongly convicted people innocent.  But, DNA evidence is used commonly to convict people who have committed the crime.  We have come a long way to be able to do this.  A while ago, this was just an idea and couldn’t be used.  Even when it was possible , it wasn’t always used.  It is huge advancement.  But as you have seen with other cases, such as the O.J. Simpson case, it does have it’s problems.  It isn’t full proof because there are people running it.  Anytime people are involved, there is a chance for mistake because we do make mistakes.  It isn’t a scientific law, but it is doing great things.